THE LESSON FROM SOUTH AFRICA'' Column by Emmanuel ARGO
On July 14, France, the country of human rights, commemorated the major event that would initiate our republic. During the concert that preceded the fireworks, the South African singer Pretty Yendi sang the most famous opera arias. At the same time, looting and riots with victims - more than 117 to date - were spreading in South Africa, undermining the fragile peace that Nelson Mandela liked to encourage when he said: "Together we stand, divided we fall", and succeeded in building on the rubble of a past bloodied by the violence of apartheid.
Jacob Zuma, his brother in struggle and dignitary of the Zulu nation, was then on the side of this first black president elected by the South African people whom he described as the Rainbow nation. Jacob Zuma himself contributed to the emergence of a new nation while distancing himself from the fratricidal opposition between theJacob Zuma himself contributed to the emergence of a new nation while distancing himself from the fratricidal opposition between the ANC and the Zulu nation represented by the Inkata, preferring the path of wisdom of the Nobel Peace Prize winner, Nelson Mandela.
Once the new republic was established, Jacob Zuma also contributed unreservedly to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which now serves as an example to many countries. Thus, his presence alongside the peacemakers made him de facto one of them, like Cyril Ramaphosa, Tabo Mbeki, Mangosuthu Buthelezi, Roelf Meyer, Frederik de Klerk and Desmond Tutu.
It is therefore surprising that a historical actor in the struggle against apartheid, and moreover a former president of the republic, has allowed himself to be dragged down to the point where he can no longer continue the work of the government.It is therefore surprising that a historical actor in the struggle against apartheid, and moreover a former president of the republic, has allowed himself to be dragged down to the point where he can no longer pursue the work of peace initiated by his peers and thus evade the law, in defiance of a majority of South Africans and of his political commitments.
The law is hard but it is the law'', that is part of the democratic rules. Elsewhere in Africa, in Latin America, former presidents of the republic have gone to prison. In the West, prime ministers and presidents have already been sentenced to prison.
South Africa is rich, but societal fractures, the economic downturn, the Covid 19 pandemic and other social fractures create frustration and ongoing popular discontent. The riots and other toyi toyis* are the manifestation of this, even if the current President, Cyril Ramaphosa, is trying to restore confidence in the State by fighting against the prevarications and other malpractices that plague the country.
With the end of apartheid and the abolition of the Bantustans, the free movement of people and easier money have encouraged the emergence of new businesses and thus a greater number of people.With the end of apartheid and the abolition of the bantustans, the free movement of people and easier money have favoured the emergence of new businesses and therefore a certain economic development in metropolises or provinces such as Gauteng/Johannesburg-Pretoria, Cape Town and KwaZulu Natal, which have become attractive. In addition, the flow of money from the parallel economy resulting from the transformation of solidarity stokvels* into savings accounts with single-member bank cards that can be used anywhere in the country has facilitated transactions. This was an opportunity for the most daring to take advantage of the windfalls, especially those who came into business after having experienced the scurrilous laws of the former regime.
Moreover, the liberation of the country was achieved through civil disobedience, a force carried by a majority of the black population, the one that today is qualified as the "lost generation". It is this uneducated population with no career prospects or social security coverage that is revolting today, since they have not yet obtained anything in exchange for their privations and sacrifices.
Affirmative action', or positive discrimination, was planned for them by all the partners in the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms.The Convention for a Democratic South Africa (CODESA), which began its work on 20 December 1991 in Kempton Park near Johannesburg, provided for affirmative action for them. But since it was limited to certain categories of population with a minimum of education, this programme did not produce the expected effects. In 1992, at a CODESA meeting, I personally drew the attention of eminent officials, including Cyril Ramaphosa and Tabo Mbeki, to its limitations. Among these categories, the case of child soldiers, which is not only specific to the rainbow nation, was raised. It must be noted that special attention was paid to this issue by the pugnacious Graça Machel who became Nelson Mandela's wife, and later founded the group called : The Elders/les Aînés joined by international personalities of high rank. While The Elders work for the reintegration of these unwilling child soldiers, today they are no less active in finding solutions to prevent the Covid 19 pandemic throughout Africa and other disadvantaged continents.
Furthermore, the issue of reparations including land reform was not sufficiently addressed by the TRC. With a reasonable redistribution of land and vocational training, the rural population could have stayed instead of joining the shanty towns of the big cities and thus adding to the number of those left behind.
Finally, the industries that produced goods during the apartheid period have relocated or disappeared, leaving behind a poorly trained workforce.
At a time when the country is in the grip of so many economic, societal and social difficulties, at a time when Cyril Ramaphosa is trying to restore the rule of law, at a time when At a time when the covid 19 pandemic is straining the health system, Jacob Zuma had no business allowing the ethnic divide to resurface for his own gain.
It is not only South Africa, but the entire African continent, with a population of more than one billion and rich in mineral resources, that has now become a vast market for the production of food.It is not only South Africa, but the entire African continent, with a population of more than one billion and rich in mineral resources, which has now become a vast market for Asia and a supplier of raw materials, and thus a challenge for the economies of the world's rich countries. Also, with the support of other emerging economic powers such as Nigeria, the African Union, which has 55 member countries, should initiate a more proactive approach to interregional economic and social cooperation aimed at reducing poverty.Should the African Union, which brings together 55 member countries, initiate a more proactive approach to inter-regional economic and social cooperation aimed at reducing poverty, the brain drain and the return to the country of a large number of workers trained abroad who could constitute a new entrepreneurial middle class?
Without food, health and financial security, there can be no lasting democracy or social peace, and this also applies to our Western countries, which have been weakened by globalization.
Emmanuel Argo. Afro-descendant, born in Martinique, is a municipal councillor for civil society in continental France. At the beginning of the 90's, it is as a great witness and contributor to the African National Congress/ ANC presided by Nelson Mandela that he lived the advent of the new South Africa. In this capacity he was a guest speaker at the international conference: South Africa and the European Community: Forging new links in Brussels. He also participated in the Kempton Park -Johannesburg Agreements resulting from CODESA. He was present at Nelson Mandela's inauguration ceremonies and was appointed as a consultant to the European Commission in Brussels by the Ministry of Education in Nelson Mandela's first government. He is the co-author of several books including: He has co-authored several books including: "NEPAD and the African renaissance" and "Economic Partnership Agreement for Eastern and Southern Africa" and has co-authored the book entitled: "Who Threatens Peace and Stability in Africa". He has written numerous press articles and published several books including: Nelson Mandela and the New South Africa'' and ''Hands on the Money of the Poor. Thanks to the Remitt@nces''.